In the 1st Olympic 1896 there were some gymnastic disciplines. It became the official competition sport in the 7th Asian Games in 1974, Tehran, Iran.
Men's gymnastic programmes
The field is 12x12m. Floor exercise is made of a whole exercises, mainly acrobatics exercise. Gymnast must finish it within 50-70 seconds. Floor exercise has strict request on acrobatic and holding position movements, such as a connecting part of acrobatic forward and backward, the holding position request a comparative difficulty.
Pommel Horse is 1.05m high, with the ring 12cm tall. Pommel Horse exercise is characterised by different types of circular swings with legs apart and together in a variety of support positions on all parts of the horse, single leg swing and/or scissors. Swings through the handstand position, with or without turns, are permitted. All elements must be executed with swing and without the slightest interruption of the exercise. Strength and hold elements are not permitted.
The apparatus is 2.60m high. An exercise on the Rings is composed of swing, strength and hold parts in approximately equal portions. These parts and combination are executed in a hang position, to or through a support position, or to or through the handstand position, and execution with straight arms should be predominant. Contemporary gymnastic exercises are characterised by transitions between elements of swing and strength or the reverse. The swinging or the cables and the crossing of the cables are not permitted.
The height of the apparatus is 1.35m for men. Each vault begins with a run and a take of from both feet (with or without a round of) to the vault board with legs together and is executed with a brief support phase on the table with one or two hands. The maximum distance of the approach run is 25m. The approach is allowed to be interrupted, but not to go back and run again. A scale of flight and landing distance is required.
The apparatus is 1.80m high. It is made up of a set of swing and fly elements, and performed with continuous transitions through various hand and support positions.
The apparatus is 2.60m high. Horizontal Bar exercise must be a dynamic presentation that consist entirely of the fluid connection of swinging, turning, and flight elements alternating between elements performed near to and far from the bar in a variety of hand grips..
Women's gymnastic programmes
The apparatus for women's Vault is a horizontal horse consisting of horse body, horse support and the base. The horse body is 125cm height, 160-163cm long and 35-36cm wide. All the movements must be supported with both hands, and the length of approach run is decided by gymnasts with a maximum of 25m. The movements can be divided into different levels according to the difficulties of the flight type. The numbers that the trainer raises up before jumping stands for the type of movement.
Uneven Bars is a unique programme only for women. It is made up of a high and a low bars. The distance between the 2 bars can be adjusted. The low bar is 170cm high, and the high bar is 250cm high. The combination of the different movements, the change between the high and low bars, the flight height and the difficulty of the flyaway are required by the rules.
The apparatus is of 5m long and 0.1m wide. The height can be adjusted. In the formal competition, it is 1.25m high. The duration of the exercise on the balance beam may not exceed 90 seconds, and the difficulties of the whole set of movements and the series of acrobatic movements are strictly required.
The performance area is 12m X 12m, and there is a 1m safety zone out of the competition area. The area is covered with a carpet with a flat of sponges under it. And a flat of spring board is under the sponges. Different from the common floor, it is with good flexibility, thus the gymnast can finish the jumping and acrobatic movements with different difficulties. Women’s floor exercise is done by music with different jumping and acrobatic movements. Gymnasts shall finish the exercise within 70-90 seconds, with musical accompaniment..
Rhythmic Gymnastics is derived from Europe. It was introduced into Olympics in 1984 Los Angles Olympics and acted as an official discipline in the 7th Asian Games in Tehran 1974.
The competition area is a floor, similar to that of Artistic Gymnastics, and it must have one regular-typed floor area covered with the requisite type of carpet.
Rhythmic Gymnastic consists of 5 types of apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, club and ribbon. The gymnasts shall keep the consistency of the movements, and there shall be not any holding position. The competition time for each gymnast shall be controlled within 75-90 seconds. Overtime or insufficiency will be deducted 0.05 every second. The gymnast must keep touching with the apparatus they use. Music and movement shall be in coordination. The trainers shall not contact the gymnasts, the musicians and the judges during the competition.
Trampoline is derived from Europe. In 2000 the 27th Olympic in Sydney, trampoline became a discipline of gymnastics, and in 2006 it become an official discipline in the 15th Doha Asian Games.
Trampoline is termed as the ultimate combination of sport and art. The gymnast finish all the acrobatics movements, including free bounce, tuck jump, pike jump, front &back somersault or some more complicated combined movements. The frame of trampoline is made of metal, 5.05m long, 2.91m wide, 1.15m high; with a safety net of 4.028m long, 2.014m wide, and suspended with 112 springs.
A routine on the trampoline is characterized by high, continuous rhythmic feet to feet and feet to back, front or seat rotational jumping elements, without hesitation or intermediate straight bounces. During a routine no element may be repeated, otherwise the difficulty of the repeated element will not be counted.