The first organised swimming races did not take place until the 19th century, when The National Swimming Society of Great Britain was created in 1837 and began to conduct competitions. Three Men’s Swimming events (100m, 500m and 1200m freestyle) were held in the first modern Olympic Games in Athens 1896. Swimming rule and World Records were made to promote and encourage the development of swimming throughout the world when The Federation Internationale de Natation (FINA) was formed during the London 1908 Olympic Games competition to act as a governing body for the sport. Women’s swimming events became a regular part of the Olympic Games since 1912. Swimming Competition was included in the first Asia Games in New Delhi 1951.
The swimming pool for Olympic Games and Asia Games shall be 50m long, at least 25m wide and at least 2m deep. Swimming competition will be conducted in the eight central lanes of the pool. The lanes shall be at least 2.5m wide with 2 spaces of 2.5m wide outside of lanes 1 and 8.
The four competitive swimming strokes are freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly during the Olympic Games and Asia Games.
Diving results are listed with those from the swimming events. Its origin begins at 20th century; in 1900 Swedish diver gave their numerous exhibitions on the 2nd Olympic Games. Men’s Diving was contested at the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis. Women diver was first allowed to participate at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm. Until 1951, the Diving Competition has been the official competition Olympic sport with full rules. It was the official competitive sports since the 1st Asian Games in 1951.
The area of the diving pool is 25x25m, no less than 5.5m deep. The platform board is 10m over the water level, hard and non-flexible. According to FINA, the board shall be at least 6m long, 3m wide, with non-slip surface. The springboard is 3m flexible board over the water level. According to FINA, the board shall be at least 4.8m long, 0.5m wide, with non-slip surface.
The Diving Competition involves the platform and the springboard diving. All the divers shall finish the compulsory and the optional dive during the competition.
Water polo is one of the earliest team Olympic Sport. Men's water polo was played during 1900 Paris Olympics, while women's water polo made it is Olympic debut during the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Water polo was an official competitive sport since the 1st Asian Games in 1951.
The field of the play is in a standard 50m swimming pool, with the depth of over 2m and the boundary to distinguish the field of play. The area of the field of play is 30x20m by men and 25x20m by women. The goal is made by a firm beam and 2 gate posts. Distinctive marks, such as caps shall be provided on both sides, the caps color are the same as the ear-covers, but the goalkeeper shall take the ear-cover in red.
Each team consists of 13 players, one of whom shall be the goalkeeper, and no more than 7 players on the field of play. Touching the bottom and the side of the pool during the competition is prohibited. Players shall keep swimming and treading water. The duration of the game shall be 4 periods, each of 8 minutes actual play.
It looks like perhaps the most effortless event in the Olympic Games, but there is more to synchronised swimming than what appears on the surface. Besides demanding strength, endurance, flexibility, grace and artistry, it requires exceptional breath control.
Unusual, but vital, equipment helps the women maintain the illusion of effortlessness, no simple task considering they perform strenuous movements upside down and underwater while holding their breath. A nose clip prevents water from entering the nose, allowing the swimmers to remain underwater for long periods. Gelatine keeps the hair in place. Make-up brings out the features.
Most importantly, an underwater speaker lets the swimmers hear the music clearly while underwater, helping them achieve the split-second timing critical to synchronised swimming.
Originally known as water ballet, synchronised swimming began in Canada in the 1920s. It spread to the United States in the early '30s, where a display at the 1934 Chicago World's Fair drew rave reviews. Its popularity soared further when Esther Williams performed in a string of MGM "aqua musicals" in the 1940s and '50s.
Synchronised swimming emerged as an exhibition sport at the Olympic Games from 1948 to 1968, then debuted as a full medal sport in Los Angeles in 1984. It is open only to women, with medals offered in two events: duet and team.
Competition for both events consists of a technical routine and a free routine, each performed to music within a time limit. In the technical routine, swimmers perform specific moves in a set order, including boosts, rockets, thrusts and twirls. In the free routine there are no restrictions on music or choreography. Judges of each routine look for a high degree of difficulty and risk, flawless execution, innovative choreography and seemingly effortless performance.
The judging for synchronised swimming resembles the judging for figure skating. Two panels of five judges assess a performance, one panel scoring technical merit and the other assessing artistic impression. In both cases, each judge awards a mark out of a possible 10.